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Manila Bay, Philippines

Last modified March 31, 2010

The Philippines is composed of 7,107 islands. It is a country rich in culture with a colorful history. It is also known as the Pearl of the Orient.

Download Manila Bay's Coastal Strategy

Efforts to adopt an integrated approach to attain sustainability of the Manila Bay Area has been started by the signing of the Manila Bay Declaration by national agencies, local governments, NGOs, industry, private sector, and community groups committing to working together to implement the Manila Bay Coastal Strategy. The Manila Bay Coordinating Committee was also established and a five-year operational plan adopted. An Integrated Environmental Monitoring Program was also developed by national agencies.

Site Overview

  • Location: Southwest portion of Luzon Island, Philippines
  • Coastline: 190 km
  • Coastline surface area: 1,800 km2
  • Coastal Cities and Municipalities: Manila, Parañaque, Las Piñas and Navotas
  • Coastal Provinces: Bataan, Pampanga, Bulacan and Cavite
  • Non-Coastal Cities and Municipalities: Quezon City, Caloocan City, Makati, Pasig, Marikina, Manadaluyong, Muntinlupa, Valenzuela, Malabon, San Juan, Pateros, and Taguig
  • Non-Coastal Provinces: Nueva Ecija, Tarlac and Laguna 


  • Population: 24 million
  • Population Density: 1,190 persons/km2

Ecological Values

  • Mangroves
  • Wetlands
  • Coral reefs and seagrass
  • Upland forests

Economic activities

  • Fisheries and aquaculture
  • Manufacturing industry
  • Shipping and ports
  • Agriculture
  • Mining and quarrying
  • Commercial areas
  • Residential areas

Environmental Threats

  • Water pollution
  • Solid waste
  • Overexploitation of resources
  • Siltation and sedimentation
  • Habitat degradation
  • Natural hazards
  • Sea-level rise
  • Multiple-use conflicts

Role of Organizations

  • Formulate and implement environmental/information and education programs
  • Organize and mobilize communities and their sectors/stakeholders to implement action program
  • Strengthen linkages between environment and social programs
  • Promote the rights of indigenous people and marginalized groups in the development and management of the Bay’s resources
  • Assist to raise funds in support of the action programs